02.Varieties of coffee beans
Feb 09, 2023
The variety of coffee beans is one of the most critical factors in determining the flavor of coffee.
Worldwide, native coffee beans are mainly divided into three categories: Arabica, Canephora (this category has only one bean species: Robusta, also better known) and Liberica.
Today's specialty coffee basically uses Arabica, and its flavor is much more refined. With low bitterness and high sweetness and sourness, it belongs to the "sour flavor" coffee.
In terms of ingredients, Arabica coffee has low caffeine content and rich fat and sugar content, so it has a soft smell, fresh and slightly sweet taste, and sometimes has some refreshing and pleasant sour taste, which is loved by many coffee lovers .
Arabica coffee has weak resistance to insects, is planted at high altitudes, and bears fruit slowly. Therefore, it is mostly used for fresh coffee production.
Robusta is easy to grow, has a large and cheap yield, and has a rough flavor. It is often used in industrial coffee production such as instant coffee (the extracted coffee liquid is about twice that of Arabica), canned coffee, and liquid coffee. Also known as "commercial beans".
Robusta has a unique and strong aroma (called "Rob flavor", some people think it is a musty smell) and bitterness. If you mix 2-3% into other coffee, the whole cup of coffee will taste like Rob.Therefore, Robusta coffee beans cannot be drunk as single origin coffee beans.
Its caffeine content is much higher than that of Arabica, about 3.2%.
It is relatively minority, accounting for only 3% to 5%. Generally, it cannot be drunk alone, and the taste is too salty.
Three beans, three distinct flavors. Arabica beans have low bitterness, high sweetness and sourness, and various flavors, which belong to the "sour-flavor" coffee; Robusta has higher bitterness and a more mellow taste; Liberica generally cannot be drunk alone, and the taste is salty .
The quality of coffee beans also affects the flavor of coffee. In Ethiopia, coffee beans are graded according to the "defective rate":
Micro-batch: only pick red fruits (only red fruits are collected in exquisite manors);
G1: Only one manual selection is required to remove the green fruits, and the rest are red fruits;
G2: It takes 2 manual selections to remove the green fruits (indicating that there are more green fruits than G1);
G3, G4 go down in turn...